One of the first LEGO Mindstorms books I read (I can't remember which one now though), had this wonderful insert in the front that listed all the parts in one of the Mindstorms kits, accompanied by names for each part. It was accompanied by a marvellous quote that read something like, "Half of all the knowledge about something is knowing what to call it." If anyone know where this quote comes from, please let me know.
Some of the problems associated with naming LEGO parts is dealt with in "A Common Nomenclature for Lego Families", by Giles Turnbull.
As for Mindstorms NXT, an engineer at Google recently created a series of posters that list and name all the parts in the NXT Education Base Set (9797).